J Korean Soc Cosmetol > Volume 30(3); 2024 > Article
소비자의 헤어관리행동과 헤어살롱종사자 선택속성 및 고객만족도의 관계

Abstract

In the beauty service industry, quality of life has improved along with economic development, and consumers' lifestyles have become more diverse. Unlike in the past, customers with rapid knowledge and diverse experiences place importance on individuality and have increased aesthetic desires. Accordingly, this study investigated the relationship between consumers' hair care behavior, preferences for beauty salon staff, and customer satisfaction. The limitations of this study are as follows. First, considering that there are more consumers in the study who do not visit regularly than there are consumers who visit regularly, generalizations may not be accurate. Second, because there is no designated hair salon and data on consumer satisfaction while traveling was collected together, the results of worker preference may be limited. To overcome the above limitations, we suggest that future research consider the following directions. First, it is necessary to equally compare consumers who visit beauty salons regularly and those who do not visit regularly, or conduct research targeting regular consumers. Second, worker preference and satisfaction data should be collected from consumers who have designated hair salons and studied separately or compared. Based on the results of this study, it is judged that continued research is necessary to identify the tendency of consumers to follow the style of the worker and to find ways to attract designated customers.

I. Introduction

In the beauty service industry, as the quality of life improves along with economic development, consumers' lifestyles are becoming more diverse. Unlike in the past, customers with rapid knowledge and diverse experiences are placing importance on individual individuality and their aesthetic desires are also increasing (Gwon & Kim, 2008). Additionally, modern beauty shops have developed into spaces for self-expression and identity rather than simply for hair care. Beyond the functional aspect, it is also developing into a symbolic meaning that represents an individual's taste, fashion sensibility, and social status (Jung & Jin, 2023). Lee & Jang (2013) say that hair care is not a simple decorative act as in the past, but is an essential tool for achieving mental stability through image management and expression of individuality due to the increase in social activities. Accordingly, consumers are increasingly trying to highlight their own beauty rather than following trends. In addition, communication has become smoother with the development of SNS, and consumers have entered a new and expanded beauty industry where they directly select beauty salons and designers that suit their individual tastes and tendencies and use the services. In order to respond to ever-changing consumer demands and stay ahead of the competition among businesses, while it's important to attract new customers, you also need to focus on maintaining ongoing relationships with existing customers and visiting employees. Because the choice of a beauty salon by an existing or designated customer is directly related to the customer's intention and subsequent selection behavior, the need for strategies to understand what consumers want and meet their needs and expectations is increasing. Although research on image management behavior is actively conducted in various fields and aspects, research on consumer preference and satisfaction according to management behavior is lacking. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the factors related to consumers' hair care behavior and studied and verified whether they affect each dimension, thereby confirming the correct perception of aesthetic pursuit behavior according to consumer personality, hair salon employee preference, and factors that improve customer satisfaction. This is expected to increase the skills workers need in terms of technology and service, is judged to be of practical help in improving sales, and aims to provide basic data so that it can be applied in practice.

Ⅱ. Theoretical Background

1. Hair care behavior

Hair care refers to improving the shape of the hair and scalp care through physical and chemical methods, and expressing an attractive external image by managing and grooming the hair for healthy and elastic hair (Yoo, 2010). This is one of the important elements of anyone's self-management image, and with the development of media, it has become a means of expressing oneself and highlighting aesthetic aspects as a factor in changing one's appearance (Kim, 2017). It was argued that it is a behavioral tendency to manage one's hairstyle through physical and chemical methods such as cutting, permanent waves, dyeing, and styling in order to create the attractive image one pursues (Choi et al., 2022).
It is believed that consumers' hair care behavior, which varies depending on individual habits, will affect the choice of practitioner. In order to study hair care behavior according to consumer habits, this study intends to name the subdimensions as aesthetic hair pursuit behavior, hair care contribution behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care contribution behavior.

2. Selection attributes of hair salon workers

Selection attribute refers to selecting a worker to purchase one of the important decisions of a consumer, such as a product or service. In the decision-making process to select a worker, the consumer's desire or expectation of the worker becomes the standard for evaluating the worker, and the consumer decides which worker to purchase by comparing his or her own evaluative standards and perceptual characteristics (Cheon, 2004). Currently, regardless of gender or age, maintaining one's physical health and beautiful appearance is a service that improves the individual's quality of life and desires and improves the quality of life (Lim, 2020). In modern society, consumers refer to various factors to select workers that fit their style.
Accordingly, in this study, it was determined that the personality or atmosphere one pursues is discovered and selected from employees, and by reconstructing the components of Kim (2022), the sub-factors of beauty salon workers' selection attributes were divided into review preference, career preference, image preference, and time preference. I want to name it.

3. Customer satisfaction

The dictionary definition of customer satisfaction is an indicator that comprehensively represents customer satisfaction with products and services. This is a beneficial experience that not only encourages consumers to repurchase a product or service or revisit their preferred store, but also meets the customer's expectations and needs by recommending it to other customers through positive word of mouth (Kang, 2004). Park & Lee (2012) said that this is a factor that forms a positive relationship between service providers and buyers, and Kim & Park (2023) said that services or products provided to customers mean an emotional response that exceeds the customer's expectations.
Accordingly, in this study, based on the components of Sin (2023) and Kim (2019), we intend to revise and supplement the lower dimensions as factors that can satisfy customer satisfaction and name them as process satisfaction, facility satisfaction, service satisfaction, and price satisfaction.

Ⅲ. Contents and Methods

1. Research problem

The research questions are as follows.
1. Find out the general information about the subject of the investigation.
2. Investigate the validity and reliability of consumers' hair care behavior, hair salon worker preference, and customer satisfaction.
3. Investigate the impact of consumers’ hair care behavior on hair salon worker preferences.
4. Investigate the impact of consumers’ hair care behavior on customer satisfaction.
5. Investigate the impact of hair salon worker preferences on customer satisfaction.

2. Research subjects and data collection

A questionnaire was distributed to adult consumers in their 20s or older, and data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 318 questionnaires were distributed from November 1 to November 10, 2023, and analysis was conducted after all were collected.

3. Measurement tools and analysis methods

The questionnaire consisted of general questions, hair care behavior (17), worker preference (19), and customer satisfaction (18). General information was reconstructed by the researcher, hair care behavior was reconstructed from the studies of Choi (2021) and Lee (2021), worker preference was reconstructed from the studies of Kim (2022) and Park (2014), and customer satisfaction questions were reconstructed from the studies of Kim (2019) and Yang (2019) were reorganized to suit this study.
SPSS 22.0 program was used to analyze the collected data and test the research question, and the data analysis method was applied sequentially according to the problem.
Frequency analysis was used to find out the general characteristics of the survey subjects, and factor analysis and reliability analysis were used to find out the reliability and validity of each dimension with hair care behavior, hair salon worker preference, and customer satisfaction. To find out the impact of each dimension. For this purpose, regression analysis was performed.

Ⅳ. Results and Discussion

1. General information about the subject of investigation

Frequency analysis was conducted to find out the general information of the survey subjects, and the results are shown in <Table 1>.
The gender ratio was higher at 43.1% male and 56.9% female. Regarding marital status, single was the highest at 51.3%, followed by married at 46.2% and other at 2.5%. Age was highest at 34.0% in their 20s, followed by 29.8% in their 30s, 21.4% in their 40s, and 14.8% in their 50s or older. Regarding educational background, college attendance/graduation was the highest at 41.8%, followed by college enrollment/graduation at 24.8%, graduate school enrollment at 19.2%, and high school graduation at 14.2%. The highest average monthly income was 2 million won to less than 3 million won at 33.4%, followed by 1 million won to less than 2 million won at 18.2%, 3 million won to less than 4 million won at 18.2%, and 4 million won to less than 5 million won. 20.1%, and 10.1% over 5 million won. As a result of examining the presence or absence of a fixed beauty salon, the proportion of ‘yes’ was higher, with 66.0% saying ‘yes’ and 34.0% saying ‘no.’ In terms of reasons for choosing a hair salon, recommendation from acquaintances was the highest at 38.1%, followed by convenience (distance, parking, etc.) at 29.2%, SNS advertising (promotion) at 20.1%, satisfaction with unit price at 10.1%, and satisfaction with interior design at 2.5%. The most common procedure was dyeing at 38.0%, followed by cut at 36.2%, perm at 21.7%, clinic at 2.8%, and scalp at 1.3%. The highest period of time attending the hair salon they currently use was more than 1 year at 53.4%, followed by 6 to less than 9 months at 16.0%, 1 month to less than 3 months at 12.3%, 3 months to less than 6 months at 10.1%, and 9 months to 1 month. Less than a year came in at 8.2%.
As a result of investigating the reasons for changing the hair salon among the 108 people who responded 'No' to the question of whether they have a regular hair salon in <Table 2>, service dissatisfaction was the highest at 33.3%, followed by convenience (distance, parking, etc.) at 29.6%. Designated designer turnover occurred at 20.4%, followed by dissatisfaction with unit prices (price increase, etc.) at 16.7%.

2. Validity and reliability for each dimension

1) Validity and reliability of hair care behavior

As a result of factor analysis to verify the validity of the hair care behavior questions, four factors were derived as shown in <Table 3>. As a result of Bartlett's identity matrix inspection,
The first factor was the ‘aesthetic hair pursuit behavior’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.641~0.757, the eigenvalue was 3.075, and the variance explanation ratio was 18.0%. The second factor was the ‘Hair Care Machine Travel’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.597~0.765, the eigenvalue was 3.051, and the variance explanation ratio was 17.9%. The third factor was the ‘Hair Care Attitude Behavior’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.580~0.788, the eigenvalue was 2.594, and the variance explanation ratio was 15.2%. The fourth factor was the ‘hair care travel movement’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.596~0.785, the eigenvalue was 1.746, and the variance explanation ratio was 10.2%.
As a result of factor analysis, it was found that the four factors derived explained more than 61.5% of the total variance. As a result of reliability verification, the reliability coefficient, Cronbach's, for all four factors was 0.755 to 0.796, showing that there was no problem with reliability.

2) Validity and reliability of employee selection attributes

As a result of factor analysis to verify the validity of the employee preference questions, four factors were derived as shown in <Table 4>. As a result of Bartlett's identity matrix check.
The first factor was the ‘review preference’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.744~0.786, the eigenvalue was 3.366, and the variance explanation ratio was 17.7%. The second factor was the ‘career preference’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.640~0.838, the eigenvalue was 3.267, and the variance explanation ratio was 17.1%. The third factor was the ‘image preference’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.649~0.779, the eigenvalue was 2.676, and the variance explanation ratio was 14.0%. The fourth factor was the ‘time preference’ factor, with a factor loading value of 0.518~0.793, an eigenvalue of 2.103, and a variance explanation ratio of 11.0%.
As a result of factor analysis, the four factors derived were found to explain more than 60.0% of the total variance. As a result of the reliability test, the reliability coefficient, Cronbach's, for all four factors was 0.767~0.855, indicating that there was no problem with reliability.

3. Validity and reliability of customer satisfaction

As a result of factor analysis to verify the validity of the customer satisfaction questions, four factors were derived as shown in <Table 5>. As a result of Bartlett's identity matrix check,
The first factor was the ‘procedure satisfaction’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.627~0.761, the eigenvalue was 3.292, and the variance explanation ratio was 18..2%. The second factor was the ‘facility satisfaction’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.711~0.762, the eigenvalue was 3.047, and the variance explanation ratio was 16.9%. The third factor was the ‘service satisfaction’ factor, and the factor loading value was 0.606~0.746, the eigenvalue was 3.021, and the variance explanation ratio was 16.7%. The fourth factor was the ‘price satisfaction’ factor, with a factor loading of 0.726~0.809, an eigenvalue of 2.910, and a variance explanation ratio of 16.1%.
As a result of factor analysis, the four factors derived were found to explain more than 68.1% of the total variance.
As a result of the reliability test, the reliability coefficient, Cronbach's, for all four factors was found to be 0.836 to 0.869, showing that there was no problem with reliability.

4. The impact of consumers' hair care behavior on the selection attributes of beauty salon workers

The results of the regression analysis of the impact of consumers' hair care behavior on hair salon worker preference are shown in <Table 6>.
Aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care shop travel behavior, which are sub-factors of hair care behavior, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the review preference factor, which is a sub-factor of worker preference (p<.001), and aesthetic hair care behavior, Hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care travel behavior variables were found to have an explanatory power of 31.6% in predicting the review preference factor. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found that they had a significant positive influence in the following order: aesthetic hair pursuit behavior β = .354, hair care travel behavior β = .151, and hair care attitude behavior β = .130. This means that as aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and travel to hair care centers increases, review preference also increases.
Hair care management behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care attitude behavior, which are sub-factors of hair care behavior, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the career preference factor, which is a sub-factor of employee preference (p<.001). The management attitude behavior variable was found to have an explanatory power of 17.0% in predicting the career preference factor. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found to have a significant positive influence in the order of hair care travel behavior β = .280 and hair care attitude behavior β = .225. This means that as hair care technician travel behavior and hair care attitude behavior increase, career preference also increases.
Aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care shop travel behavior, which are sub-factors of hair care behavior, were found to have a statistically significant influence on the image preference factor, which is a sub-factor of worker preference (p<.001), and aesthetic hair care behavior, Hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care travel behavior variables were found to have an explanatory power of 22.5% in predicting the image preference factor. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found to have a significant positive influence in the order of hair care attitude behavior β = .355, aesthetic hair pursuit behavior β = .295, and hair care travel behavior β = -.133, which was significant. It was found to have a negative (-) effect. This means that as aesthetic hair seeking behavior and hair care attitude behavior increase, image preference also increases, and as hair care travel behavior increases, image preference decreases.
It was found that aesthetic hair seeking behavior and hair care center travel, which are sub-factors of hair care behavior, had a statistically significant impact on the time preference factor, which is a sub-factor of worker preference (p<.001). The management travel movement variable was found to have an explanatory power of 16.6% in predicting the time preference factor. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found that they had a significant positive influence in the order of aesthetic hair pursuit behavior β=.291 and hair care travel behavior β=.166. This means that as aesthetic hair seeking behavior and travel to hair care centers increase, time preference also increases.
A study by Kim & Park (2019) showed significant results showing that as trend preference increases, workers' preference for the style they want also increases, and a study by Choi et al. (2022) also showed that hair care behavior was a factor in hair salon selection attributes. Overall, the statically influential results support the results of this study that hair care behavior affects hair salon worker preferences. Accordingly, it is believed that workers should develop the ability to understand the daily hair care behavior of consumers visiting beauty shops and determine their style.

5. Impact of consumers’ hair care behavior on customer satisfaction

The results of regression analysis on the impact of consumers' hair care behavior on customer satisfaction are shown in <Table 7>.
Aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care travel behavior, which are sub-factors of hair care behavior, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the procedure satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001), and aesthetic hair care behavior, Hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care travel behavior variables were found to have an explanatory power of 24.6% in predicting treatment satisfaction factors. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found to have a significant positive influence in the order of hair care travel behavior β=.285, hair care attitude behavior β=.199, and aesthetic hair pursuit behavior β=.178. This means that as aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and movement toward hair care centers increases, treatment satisfaction also increases.
The sub-factors of hair care behavior, such as aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care device travel behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care shop travel behavior, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the facility satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001), the variables of aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care device travel behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and hair care facility travel behavior were found to have an explanatory power of 13.1% in predicting the facility satisfaction factor. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found to have a significant positive influence in the following order: aesthetic hair pursuit behavior β = .201, hair care travel behavior β = .194, and hair care attitude behavior β = .133. Contribution behavior was found to have a significant negative effect with β = -.127. This means that as aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care attitude behavior, and travel to hair care centers increase, facility satisfaction also increases, and as hair care center travel increases, facility satisfaction decreases.
Hair care attitude behavior and hair care shop travel, which are sub-factors of hair care behavior, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the service satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001). The management travel behavior variable was found to have an explanatory power of 15.7% in predicting service satisfaction factors. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found to have a significant positive influence in the order of hair care travel behavior β=.246 and hair care attitude behavior β=.181. This means that as hair care attitudes and behavior and movement toward hair care centers increase, service satisfaction also increases.
Aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care device travel behavior, and hair care attitude behavior, which are sub-factors of hair care behavior, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the price satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001), and aesthetic hair care behavior Hair seeking behavior, hair care device travel behavior, and hair care attitude behavior variables were found to have an explanatory power of 27.5% in predicting the price satisfaction factor. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found to have a significant positive influence in the order of aesthetic hair pursuit behavior β=.337, hair care attitude behavior β=.141, and hair care travel behavior β=.123. This means that as aesthetic hair seeking behavior, hair care device travel behavior, and hair care attitude behavior increase, price satisfaction also increases.
In a study by Kim & Park (2019), it was found that the sub-dimensions of satisfaction with hair style consultation are important factors in satisfaction, and this support supports the results of this study that hair style consultation has a positive (+) effect on treatment satisfaction. is giving These results suggest that satisfaction will increase when workers are able to identify needs and provide services according to consumers' hair care behavior.

6. Effect of selection attributes of beauty salon workers on customer satisfaction

The results of the regression analysis of the effect of hair salon worker preference on customer satisfaction are shown in <Table 8>.
Image preference and time preference, which are sub-factors of employee preference, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the procedure satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001), and the image preference and time preference variables influenced the procedure satisfaction factor. It was found to have an explanatory power of 24.6% in prediction. Looking at the influence of independent variables, time preference was found to have a significant positive (+) influence in that order, β=.373, and image preference β=.119. This means that as image preference and time preference increase, treatment satisfaction also increases.
Image preference and time preference, which are sub-factors of employee preference, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the facility satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001), and the image preference and time preference variables influenced the facility satisfaction factor. It was found to have an explanatory power of 13.4% in prediction. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, time preference was found to have a significant positive (+) influence in that order, β=.341, and image preference β=.115. This means that as image preference and time preference increase, facility satisfaction also increases.
Image preference and time preference, which are sub-factors of employee preference, were found to have a statistically significant impact on the service satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001), and the image preference and time preference variables influenced the service satisfaction factor. It was found to have an explanatory power of 21.6% in prediction. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, time preference was found to have a significant positive (+) influence in that order, β=.382, and image preference β=.169. This means that as image preference and time preference increase, service satisfaction also increases.
It was found that review preference, career preference, image preference, and time preference, which are sub-factors of employee preference, had a statistically significant impact on the price satisfaction factor, which is a sub-factor of customer satisfaction (p<.001), and review preference and career preference, image preference, and time preference variables were found to have an explanatory power of 38.1% in predicting price satisfaction factors. Looking at the influence of the independent variables, it was found that they had a significant positive influence in the following order: review preference β=.307, career preference β=.271, time preference β=.196, and image preference β=.121. This means that as review preference, career preference, image preference, and time preference increase, price satisfaction also increases.
In a previous study by Sim (2021), the result that preference factors have a significant positive influence on customer satisfaction factors supports the evidence of this study that the more practitioners practice the style pursued by customers, the higher the satisfaction with treatment.

Ⅴ. Conclusion

In this study, we verified the relationship between hair care behavior, beauty salon employee preference, and customer satisfaction. Based on the research results, we aim to identify factors that improve the correct perception of aesthetic pursuit behavior according to consumers' personality, preference for beauty salon workers, and customer satisfaction, and provide basic data so that they can be applied in practice.
The questionnaire was distributed to adult consumers in their 20s or older and was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Frequency analysis, factor analysis, and regression analysis were conducted on a total of 318 questionnaires using the SPSS 22.0 program.
The analysis results are as follows. Significant results were shown in worker preference and customer satisfaction depending on consumers' hair care behavior. In other words, the results showed that depending on the hair care behavior consumers pursue, they choose which worker they will receive services from based on the worker's image, and their satisfaction level increases accordingly. This means that beauty salon workers must strive to match the image that consumers want, including experience, image, treatment time, and reviews, and it has been confirmed that consumers' satisfaction with the services they receive increases as a result. This is expected to increase the skills workers must have in terms of technology and service, and is expected to be of practical help in improving sales.
The limitations of this study are as follows. First, considering that there are more consumers in the study who do not visit regularly than there are consumers who visit regularly, generalizations may not be accurate. Second, because there is no designated hair salon and data on consumer satisfaction while traveling was collected together, the results of worker preference may be limited.
To overcome the above limitations, we suggest that future research consider the following directions. First, it is necessary to equally compare consumers who visit beauty salons regularly and those who do not visit regularly, or conduct research targeting regular consumers. Second, worker preference and satisfaction data should be collected from consumers who have designated hair salons and studied separately or compared.
Based on the results of this study, it is judged that continued research is necessary to identify the tendency of consumers to follow the style of the worker and to find ways to attract designated customers.

Table 1.
General Matters (N=318,%)
Category Sum
N %
Gender Man 137 43.1
Woman 181 56.9
Marital status Single 163 51.3
Married 147 46.2
Exception 8 2.5
Age 20s 108 34.0
30s 95 29.8
40s 68 21.4
Over 50s 47 14.8
Academic background Graduation from high school 45 14.2
Attending/Graduating a vocational college 79 24.8
A university student/graduation 133 41.8
Graduate school or higher 61 19.2
Average monthly income 1 million won to less than 2 million won 58 18.2
2 million won to less than 3 million won 106 33.4
3 million won to less than 4 million won 58 18.2
4 million won to less than 5 million won 64 20.1
more than 5 million won 32 10.1
Presence or absence of a fixed salon Yes 210 66.0
No 108 34.0
Reason for choosing a salon Recommendation of acquaintances 121 38.1
Social media advertising (promotion) 64 20.1
Convenience of use (distance, parking, etc.) 93 29.2
Unit price satisfaction 32 10.1
Interior satisfaction 8 2.5
The main procedure Cut 115 36.2
Dyeing 121 38.0
Perm 69 21.7
nutritional treatment 9 2.8
The scalp 4 1.3
Current hair salon usage period Less than 1 to 3 months 39 12.3
Less than 3 to 6 months 32 10.1
Less than 6 to 9 months 51 16.0
9 months to less than 1 year 26 8.2
More than a year 170 53.4
Sum 318 100.0
Table 2.
Reasons for Changing Hair Salons (N=108,%)
Category Sum
N %
Reason for change Service dissatisfaction 36 33.3
Unit price dissatisfaction (price increase, etc.) 18 16.7
Designated designer turnover 22 20.4
Convenience of use (distance, parking, etc.) 32 29.6
Sum 108 100.0
Table 3.
Feasibility and Reliability of Hair Care Behavior
Hair care behavior questions Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Factor 4
Commonality
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior Contributing behavior to hair care Hair care attitude behavior Hair care involvement behavior
Style in the latest fad perm or color. .757 .386 .211 -.087 .774
I tend to brush my hair often. .703 -.034 .185 .271 .603
When you change your hairstyle, you consider the fashionable style. .677 .313 .343 -.043 .676
I have visited a hair salon to get a fashionable style. .675 .197 .367 .097 .639
I tend to wear a hat often. .641 -.048 -.356 .134 .558
I tend to get a perm that fits my hair regardless of the price. .029 .765 .194 .062 .627
I tend to dye my hair that suits me regardless of the price. .081 .764 .118 .138 .623
Regardless of the price, I tend to get a cleansing treatment for my hair. .216 .742 -.043 .206 .641
Regardless of the price, I tend to get a cut from a worker with good cut skills. .035 .681 .224 -.078 .521
I get a perm to look voluminous and thick. .318 .597 -.050 .111 .546
I'm excited to go out when I like my hair. .093 .208 .788 .084 .680
I try to do hair that makes me look pretty. .205 .168 .783 .157 .707
I stick to the style I like. .057 -.046 .642 .253 .481
I think it is harmonious to create a hairstyle that fits the situation. .323 .256 .580 .296 .488
I tend to dry my scalp and hair after shampooing. -.096 .031 .146 .785 .647
I use hair care products for my scalp and hair. .330 .215 .283 .631 .634
After purchasing scalp and hair products, I read and use the instructions and precautions. .319 .192 .229 .596 .620
Eigenvalue 3.075 3.051 2.594 1.746
Dispersion (%) 18.087 17.949 15.259 10.268
Cumulative Variance (%) 18.087 36.036 51.295 61.563
Cronbach's α .776 .796 .756 .755
Table 4.
Validity and Reliability of Employee Selection Attributes
Questions about worker selection attributes Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Factor 4
Commonality
Review Preference career preference Image Preference Time Preference
I tend to be influenced by reviews when choosing and making reservations at hair salons. .786 .126 .173 .024 .664
I tend to trust and trust the content of the review in general. .781 .118 .045 .041 .628
I tend to think that there is professional information in the content of the review. .760 .128 .075 .190 .635
I tend to think that the content published in the review is honest. .756 .046 .146 .103 .606
I tend to check reviews when choosing and making a reservation at a hair salon. .744 .026 .140 .151 .597
The experienced hairdresser seems to be familiar with the latest trends. .073 .838 .065 .002 .712
The information provided by experienced hairdressers seems reliable. .077 .838 .031 .134 .727
A experienced hairdresser will be able to treat me with the style I want. .092 .805 .130 .065 .677
If it's a suggestion from a experienced hairdresser, I don't think I'll doubt it. .161 .773 .077 .020 .630
A highly experienced hairdresser is highly professional and will give you a full explanation. .043 .640 .170 .123 .455
I think the voice tone is the most important as the designer's first image. .023 -.035 .779 .211 .654
I think clothes are the most important thing as my first image as a designer. .045 .254 .696 -.179 .584
As the first image of a designer, I think the way of speaking is the most important. .048 -.021 .688 .345 .595
I think appearance is the most important thing as my first image as a designer. .273 .178 .683 -.040 .575
I think facial expression is the most important thing as the first image of a designer. .181 .169 .649 .092 .491
If you make a reservation, you can get beauty services at the time you make a reservation. .029 .058 .130 .793 .651
I tend not to make customers wait in the middle of the beauty service. .231 .081 -.008 .717 .574
We tend to provide services in order from customers who come first. .079 .121 .238 .613 .453
The waiting time is shorter than that of other hair salons. .364 .085 -.118 .518 .505
Eigenvalue 3.366 3.267 2.676 2.103
Dispersion (%) 17.717 17.192 14.085 11.067
Cumulative Variance (%) 17.717 34.909 48.994 60.061
Cronbach's α .851 .855 .772 .767
Table 5.
Validity and Reliability of Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction questions Factor 1
Factor 2
Factor 3
Factor 4
Commonality
Treatment satisfaction Facility satisfaction Service satisfaction Price satisfaction
I am satisfied with the ease of hair treatment after the procedure. .761 .137 .283 .178 .709
I am satisfied with the overall beauty skills. .755 .220 .280 .113 .710
I'm satisfied with my hairstyle after the procedure because it suits me well. .695 .220 .318 .209 .676
I'm satisfied with taking care not to damage my hair. .668 .304 .094 .280 .627
I am satisfied with keeping the procedure time accurately. .627 .393 .148 .327 .677
I am satisfied with the treatment of the latest beauty equipment and beauty equipment. .241 .762 .323 .173 .772
I'm satisfied because the parking facilities are well established. .179 .749 .235 .042 .650
I am satisfied with the latest equipment and interior design. .304 .746 .355 .196 .814
I am satisfied with my comfort and comfort. .308 .711 .318 .085 .709
I am satisfied with customer care at the hair salon. .171 .227 .746 .135 .655
I am satisfied with the convenient reservation system as the customer care is well done at the hair salon. .377 .220 .681 .121 .669
I'm satisfied because I had enough consultation before the procedure at the hair salon. .243 .288 .653 .178 .600
I am satisfied because the salon staff are always kind. .115 .398 .639 .173 .610
I am satisfied with the various services provided by the salon. .320 .298 .606 .251 .621
I am satisfied with the price of the product recommended by the hair salon. .270 .031 .083 .809 .736
I am satisfied with the discount and coupon at the hair salon. .143 .158 .117 .791 .684
I'm satisfied with the set price for the procedure at the salon. .323 .091 .126 .770 .722
I am satisfied with the price of the prepaid ticket at the hair salon. .026 .124 .293 .726 .630
Eigenvalue 3.292 3.047 3.021 2.910
Dispersion (%) 18.291 16.926 16.782 16.164
Cumulative Variance (%) 18.291 35.217 51.999 68.163
Cronbach's α .869 .867 .846 .836
Table 6.
The Impact of Consumers' Hair Care Behavior on the Selection Attributes of Beauty Salon Workers
Independent variable (Hair management behavior) Dependent variable (Employee selection attributes) Non-standard coefficient
β t p Tolerance VIF
B S.E
(constant) Review Preference 1.092 .284 3.848 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .312 .049 .354 6.354 *** .000 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care .085 .052 .088 1.637 .103 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .169 .073 .130 2.301 * .022 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior .147 .056 .151 2.634 ** .009 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .316 F= 37.626 p= .000***
(constant) Career preference 2.173 .269 8.087 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .010 .046 .013 .208 .836 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care .235 .049 .280 4.753 *** .000 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .250 .069 .225 3.610 *** .000 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior -.003 .053 -.003 -.051 .959 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .170 F= 17.219 p= .000***
(constant) Image Preference 2.190 .248 8.814 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .213 .043 .295 4.968 *** .000 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care .005 .046 .006 .103 .918 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .377 .064 .355 5.876 *** .000 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior -.106 .049 -.133 -2.177 * .030 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .225 F= 24.043 p= .000***
(constant) Time Preference 2.785 .228 12.215 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .187 .039 .291 4.737 *** .000 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care -.055 .042 -.077 -1.306 .193 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .092 .059 .097 1.557 .120 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior .117 .045 .166 2.617 ** .009 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .166 F= 16.813 p= .000***

* p<.05,

** p<.01,

*** p<.001

Table 7.
The Effect of Consumer Hair Care Behavior on Customer Satisfaction
Independent variable (Hair management behavior) Dependent variable (Customer Satisfaction) Non-standard coefficient
β t p Tolerance VIF
B S.E
(constant) Treatment satisfaction 2.540 .214 11.853 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .112 .037 .178 3.038 ** .003 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care -.049 .039 -.069 -1.236 .217 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .185 .055 .199 3.338 ** .001 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior .199 .042 .285 4.728 *** .000 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .246 F= 26.804 p= .000***
(constant) Facility satisfaction 2.567 .322 7.983 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .178 .056 .201 3.196 ** .002 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care -.125 .059 -.127 -2.107 * .036 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .173 .083 .133 2.079 * .038 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior .189 .063 .194 2.989 ** .003 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .131 F= 12.970 p= .000***
(constant) Service satisfaction 2.671 .236 11.308 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .031 .041 .048 .768 .443 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care .016 .043 .022 .371 .711 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .175 .061 .181 2.870 ** .004 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior .179 .046 .246 3.852 *** .000 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .157 F= 15.730 p= .000***
(constant) Price satisfaction 1.470 .277 5.30 *** .000
Aesthetic hair-seeking behavior .281 .048 .337 5.867 *** .000 .695 1.439
Contributing behavior to hair care .114 .051 .123 2.234 * .026 .753 1.328
Hair care attitude behavior .173 .072 .141 2.413 * .016 .671 1.490
Hair care involvement behavior .072 .055 .078 1.319 .188 .653 1.532
adj. R²= .275 F= 31.077 p= .000***

* p<.05,

** p<.01,

*** p<.001

Table 8.
Effect of Selection Attributes of Beauty Salon Workers on Customer Satisfaction
Independent variable (Employee selection attributes) Dependent variable (Customer Satisfaction) Non-standard coefficient
β t p Tolerance VIF
B S.E
(constant) Treatment satisfaction 1.854 .264 7.012 *** .000
Review Preference .072 .040 .100 1.791 .074 .769 1.300
Career preference .073 .044 .087 1.667 .097 .877 1.141
Image Preference .104 .046 .119 2.249 * .025 .846 1.182
Time Preference .369 .054 .373 6.869 *** .000 .807 1.240
adj. R²= .246 F= 26.817 p= .000***
(constant) Facility satisfaction 1.846 .396 4.661 *** .000
Review Preference .006 .060 .006 .095 .925 .769 1.300
Career preference -.030 .065 -.026 -.459 .647 .877 1.141
Image Preference .141 .069 .115 2.029 * .043 .846 1.182
Time Preference .471 .080 .341 5.857 *** .000 .807 1.240
adj. R²= .134 F= 13.304 p= .000***
(constant) Service satisfaction 1.856 .281 6.603 *** .000
Review Preference -.002 .042 -.002 -.035 .972 .769 1.300
Career preference .055 .046 .064 1.196 .233 .877 1.141
Image Preference .154 .049 .169 3.128 ** .002 .846 1.182
Time Preference .393 .057 .382 6.895 *** .000 .807 1.240
adj. R²= .216 F= 22.811 p= .000***
(constant) Price satisfaction -.026 .316 -.083 .934
Review Preference .291 .048 .307 6.094 *** .000 .769 1.30
Career preference .299 .052 .271 5.742 *** .000 .877 1.141
Image Preference .140 .055 .121 2.518 * .012 .846 1.182
Time Preference .255 .064 .196 3.977 *** .000 .807 1.240
adj. R²= .381 F= 49.850 p= .000***

* p<.05,

** p<.01,

*** p<.001

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